Coal Liquefaction Indirect

10.5. Indirect Liquefaction Processes netl.doe.gov

Indirect coal liquefaction requires first gasifying the coal into a syngas. Therefore, while direct coal liquefaction (DCL) takes coal directly into a liquid phase, indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) consists of two major steps: (a) gasification to produce a synthesis gas (syngas); and (b) conversion of the carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H 2) in the syngas to a range of hydrocarbon fuels ...

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Coal liquefaction - Wikipedia

Specific liquefaction technologies generally fall into two categories: direct (DCL) and indirect liquefaction (ICL) processes. Direct processes are based on approaches such as carbonization, pyrolysis, and hydrogenation. Indirect liquefaction processes generally involve gasification of coal to a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, often known as synthesis gas or simply syngas. Using the Fischer–Tropsch process syngas is converted into liquid hydrocarbons.

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Coal Liquefaction - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Indirect liquefaction is the production of fuels or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal. Synthesis gas is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A hydrogen:carbon monoxide ratio of approximately 2:1 is required for hydrocarbon production. The by-product is water. In coal liquefaction, the synthesis gas is produced by coal ...

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Indirect Liquefaction - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

The main examples of indirect liquefaction methods for converting biomass to liquid fuel employ synthesis gas as their feedstock. The majority of these processes were originally developed for the conversion of coal and natural gas to liquid products. Technically, however, they should work equally well using synthesis gas produced from oxygen gasification.

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Indirect Coal Liquefaction - Stanford University

Indirect Coal Liquefaction Better Solution to Clean Energy System Yong-Wang Li, Director, Chief Scientist Synfuels China State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion Institute of Coal Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences Taiyuan 030001.

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Coal Liquefaction — Conversions — Student Energy

The process of coal liquefaction creates synthetic liquid fuels from solid coal as substitutes for various petroleum products. There are two types of liquefaction – direct and indirect 1.. Direct liquefaction converts solid coal directly into liquid form with no intermediate step, which results in only the partial dismantling of the coal structure.

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Coal liquefaction - Energy Education

Coal liquefaction is a process in which coal is converted into liquid fuels or petrochemicals. There are several processes used to accomplish this task, the two most common being the "indirect route" and the "direct route". The indirect route is composed of 2 steps: First, coal is gasified with steam and oxygen to produce a synthesis gas ...

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Coal Liquefaction The Canadian Encyclopedia

Indirect Coal Liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction processes were developed in Germany at the same time as direct processes. In the early 1920s, Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch patented a process to produce a mixture of alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids and hydrocarbons known as synthol, from a synthesis gas of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

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Life cycle analysis of direct and indirect coal ...

Jan 01, 2018  Comparing with the indirect coal liquefaction, the direct coal liquefaction could significantly reduce the emissions of the greenhouse gas and the cost with high efficiency. 2. Generally speaking, product distribution through railway is the most economical choice especially for long distance.

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Coal Liquefaction - Government Accountability Office

Coal liquefaction is the conversion of coal to a clean-burning, low-sulfer-content fuel which can augment gasoline and boiler fuels. Direct liquefaction processes are currently in the research and development stage and are expected to yield a high percentage of boiler fuels for industry and utilities. Indirect liquefaction processes are ...

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Indirect Coal Liquefaction - Stanford University

Indirect Coal Liquefaction Better Solution to Clean Energy System Yong-Wang Li, Director, Chief Scientist Synfuels China State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion Institute of Coal Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences Taiyuan 030001.

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Coal: liquefaction (Journal Article) OSTI.GOV

Of the four general methods of coal liquefaction, only indirect liquefaction (Fischer-Tropsch and methanol synthesis) currently is practiced on a commercial scale. Indirect liquefaction requires complex and expensive plants. Since the thermal efficiency of existing indirect liquefaction plants is 40 to 45 percent, coal consumption is very high.

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Coal Liquefaction - Government Accountability Office

Coal liquefaction is the conversion of coal to a clean-burning, low-sulfer-content fuel which can augment gasoline and boiler fuels. Direct liquefaction processes are currently in the research and development stage and are expected to yield a high percentage of boiler fuels for industry and utilities. Indirect liquefaction processes are ...

More

Coal Liquefaction The Canadian Encyclopedia

Indirect Coal Liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction processes were developed in Germany at the same time as direct processes. In the early 1920s, Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch patented a process to produce a mixture of alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids and hydrocarbons known as synthol, from a synthesis gas of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

More

Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction

"The life-cycle CO2 emissions from production and use of fuels made by indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) would be lower than with production and use of petroleum-derived transportation fuels ...

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Life cycle analysis of direct and indirect coal ...

Jan 01, 2018  Comparing with the indirect coal liquefaction, the direct coal liquefaction could significantly reduce the emissions of the greenhouse gas and the cost with high efficiency. 2. Generally speaking, product distribution through railway is the most economical choice especially for long distance.

More

Coal Liquefaction - Kaneko - - Major Reference Works ...

Abstract The article contains sections titled: 1. Introduction 1.1. Commercial Development 1.2. Historical Background 2. Indirect Coal Liquefaction 2.1. Preparation of Synthesis Gas 2.1.1. Coal Gas...

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Coal utilization - Liquefaction Britannica

By contrast, indirect liquefaction methods break down the coal structure all the way to a synthesis gas mixture (carbon monoxide and hydrogen), and these molecules are used to rebuild the desired liquid hydrocarbon molecules. Since coal is a complex substance, it is often represented in chemical symbols by an average composition. Given this ...

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Coal Liquefaction - SlideShare

Indirect coal liquefaction needs to go through gasification first, 2. while direct coal liquefaction involves making a partially refined synthetic crude oil from coal. It is widely believed that indirect liquefaction is more efficient than direct coal liquefaction techniques currently available. 8.

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Coal and Liquid Fuels - Stanford University

Liquids Fuels Can Be Produced from Coal Germany •Had nine indirect and 18 direct liquefaction plants at end of WWII •Produced 4 MMT/yr fuels •Met 90% of nation’s needs South Africa •Developed coal liquids industry from 1950s through the mid-1980s •Three coal-to-liquids facilities •Produced 10 MMT/yr fuels at peak •Met 60% of ...

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Subtask 3.3 - Feasibility of Direct Coal Liquefaction in ...

There are two main processes to liquefy coal: direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Because ICL has been demonstrated to a greater extent than DCL, ICL may be viewed as the lower-risk option when it comes to building a coal liquefaction facility. However, a closer look, based on conversion efficiencies and ...

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Liquefaction of Coal Biofuels Academy

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process forms the basis for indirect liquefaction of coal. The process is indirect since the coal structure is completely broken down into synthesis gas by gasification with steam and oxygen. Then the synthesis gas is reacted over an appropriate F-T catalyst to form predominantly paraffinic liquid hydrocarbons having ...

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A comparison of direct and indirect liquefaction ...

1.2. Indirect coal liquefaction. The first step in indirect liquefaction is to gasify coal in oxygen (partial oxidation) to produce syngas. The CO and H. 2. molecules in the syngas are then combined catalyti-cally to produce compounds that can be used as fuels-- either hydrocarbon fuels such as synthetic gasoline or syn-thetic diesel, or ...

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Direct Coal Liquefaction - McIlvaine Company

Comparing Direct and Indirect Liquefaction • In Direct Liquefaction (DL) pressure, heat and catalyst are used to crack the coal to make liquids – theoretical efficiency can be highroughly 70-75% – “sledge hammer” approach • In Indirect Liquefaction (IL) coal is first gasified to form syngas. Syngas is then converted to liquids by

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Coal: liquefaction (Journal Article) OSTI.GOV

Of the four general methods of coal liquefaction, only indirect liquefaction (Fischer-Tropsch and methanol synthesis) currently is practiced on a commercial scale. Indirect liquefaction requires complex and expensive plants. Since the thermal efficiency of existing indirect liquefaction plants is 40 to 45 percent, coal consumption is very high.

More

A comparison of direct and indirect liquefaction ...

Direct and indirect liquefaction technologies for making synthetic liquid fuels from coal are compared. It is shown that although direct liquefaction conversion processes might be more energy-efficient, overall system efficiencies for direct and indirect liquefaction are typically comparable if end-use as well as production efficiencies are taken into account.

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Liquefaction of Coal Biofuels Academy

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process forms the basis for indirect liquefaction of coal. The process is indirect since the coal structure is completely broken down into synthesis gas by gasification with steam and oxygen. Then the synthesis gas is reacted over an appropriate F-T catalyst to form predominantly paraffinic liquid hydrocarbons having ...

More

A comparison of direct and indirect liquefaction ...

1.2. Indirect coal liquefaction. The first step in indirect liquefaction is to gasify coal in oxygen (partial oxidation) to produce syngas. The CO and H. 2. molecules in the syngas are then combined catalyti-cally to produce compounds that can be used as fuels-- either hydrocarbon fuels such as synthetic gasoline or syn-thetic diesel, or ...

More

Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction

"The life-cycle CO2 emissions from production and use of fuels made by indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) would be lower than with production and use of petroleum-derived transportation fuels ...

More

Coal utilization - Liquefaction Britannica

By contrast, indirect liquefaction methods break down the coal structure all the way to a synthesis gas mixture (carbon monoxide and hydrogen), and these molecules are used to rebuild the desired liquid hydrocarbon molecules. Since coal is a complex substance, it is often represented in chemical symbols by an average composition. Given this ...

More

Coal Liquefaction - Kaneko - - Major Reference Works ...

The article contains sections titled: 1. Introduction 1.1. Commercial Development 1.2. Historical Background 2. Indirect Coal Liquefaction 2.1. Preparation of ...

More

Subtask 3.3 - Feasibility of Direct Coal Liquefaction in ...

There are two main processes to liquefy coal: direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Because ICL has been demonstrated to a greater extent than DCL, ICL may be viewed as the lower-risk option when it comes to building a coal liquefaction facility. However, a closer look, based on conversion efficiencies and ...

More

Coal and Liquid Fuels - Stanford University

Liquids Fuels Can Be Produced from Coal Germany •Had nine indirect and 18 direct liquefaction plants at end of WWII •Produced 4 MMT/yr fuels •Met 90% of nation’s needs South Africa •Developed coal liquids industry from 1950s through the mid-1980s •Three coal-to-liquids facilities •Produced 10 MMT/yr fuels at peak •Met 60% of ...

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Prepare A Table That Compares Gasification, Liquef ...

Prepare a table that compares gasification, liquefaction (direct and indirect), combustion of coal. State which type of coal is more suitable in each application, which property of coal affects the above-mentioned processes (and also how they affect), and also state the differences in

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A Review of Coal Liquefaction Using Direct Coal ...

There are two coal liquefaction techniques, namely direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). In ICL, there is a gasification process that usually develops products, generating Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid, methanol (CH 3 OH/MeOH), and dimethyl ether (CH 3 OCH 3 /DME). On the other hand, DCL involves a hydrogenation ...

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Indirect liquefaction contractors' review meeting ...

By indirect coal liquefaction, the authors mean coal gasification to a synthesis gas which in turn is converted to liquid fuels. The meeting was divided into four sections: gas processing research; oxygenated fuels/fuel additives; advanced Fischer-Tropsch synthesis; and alternative fuels - process support and engineering evaluation.

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Indirect Coal Liquefaction - ESDM

Professor, State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion Institute of Coal Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences P.O.Box 165, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 030001 P.R. China Indirect Coal Liquefaction Better Solution to Clean Energy System

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Overview of Coal Liquefaction - Energy.gov

Indirect Coal Liquefaction Process Gasification Gas Cleaning Oxygen/ Steam FT Synthesis Iron Catalyst Ultra-Clean Liquid Fuels Chemical Feedstocks H 2 + CO Syngas Water and Oxygenates Coal* Sulfur, CO 2 and Ash C xH y Liquids Wax FT Product Separation Upgrading Steam Electric Power Generation

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